How to negotiate successfully – 5 models of negotiation styles
All negotiators share two universal interests – in result and relationship, disregarding the subject of negotiation. These interests are not expressed separately. Each of them mutually influences the other, to create the model or style of negotiation conduct.
Your negotiation style depends on the level of stress you put on your interest in result and relationship. The model of negotiation styles shows how these two interests interact to form five characteristic negotiation styles.
Vysoký – High
Průměrný – Average
Nízký – low
Přizpůsobující – Accommodating
Vytvářejte přátelské vztahy – Form friendly relationships
Spolupracující – Collaborating
Kreativně řešte problémy, aby vyhrály obě strany – Solve problems in a creative way, so that both parties win
Kompromisní – Compromising
Rozdělujte rozdíl – Divide the difference
Ustupující – Avoiding
Vezměte si vše, co můžete získat – Take all you can get
Porážející – Competing
Buďte vítězové za každou cenu – Win at all costs
Competing negotiation model is created when the negotiator has great interest in the result of negotiaton and little interest in relationship with the other party. This model is characterized by competing – win – loss type, pressure, intimidation, and hostile relationships. The negotiator tries to get the most for him/herself. Defending the other party at any cost becomes the negotiator´s goal.
President Vladimir Putin reportedly said off the record: “Negotiation with Obama is like playing chess with a pigeon. The pigeon knocks over all the pieces, shits on the board and then struts around like it won the game.”
Avoiding negotiation model is created when when the negotiator has little interest in both the result of negotiaton and relationship with the other party. This model is characteristic of the feeling of helplessness, lack of interest in result, submission, surrender and acquiescence with anything the other party can offer. The negotiator retreats and beats a retreat.
Compromising negotiation model is created when the stress is put on establishment of compatible relationships in the hope that the negotiator will succeed. This model is characteristic of the effort to establish harmony, avoid fundamental contradictions, be responsive to back pressures, give priority to interpersonal relationships rather than the result required. The style of negotiator is understanding basic needs of the opposing party.
Accommodating negotiation model is created when average interest in both dimensions of negotiation is expressed. This model is characterized by compromise, meeting the other party half way, looking for agreement, dividing the difference and other half-way provisions. Lowering the number of conflicts is valued rather than agreeing solution of the problem. The aim of this negotiation style is to reach an acceptable agreement.
Collaborating negotiation model is created when high level of interest in both result, and relationship with the other party is expressed. This model is characterized by searching for common interests, effort to solve problems and realizing, that both parties have to satisfy their needs for the result to be entirely successful. The result is collaborating, accomodationg conduct and reach of optimal solution. The main goal of the negotiator is the effort to create win/win type of result.
Variations of each of these styles can be suitable under certain conditions. Apart from that, the negotiator can choose any of these five styles for specific negotiation. The other party can, for example, have bigger power over the subject of negotiaton. If we want to reach agreement, the retreating conduct can be the only sensible way, in this case. However, consistent use of collaborating style offers bigger likelihood of reaching negotiation results of the highest quality and more permanent satisfaction of interest of the parties involved. If satisfaction of needs of both parties is the primary thing, and problem solving strategies are used, in that case the negotiation result and relationship of both parties will be a benefit.
Certain interpersonal skills can teach the negotiator improve his/her skills and can help them move closer to collaborating style. The following six interpersonal skills can help you move closer to collaborating, if you use them regularly.
During a discussion, show your needs and be considerate to the other party´s needs.
Work intentionally on creating and maintaining supportive tone during the discussion.
Do your best, both verbally and non-verbally, to assure your partner that you are listening and you are interested in what he/she is saying.
Be perceptive to what types of non-verbal conduct your negotiation partner uses. This conduct can tell you more about him/her than his/her words
Jiří Paroubek, the former Prime Minister – his non-verbal body language is so distinct, that it tells a lot before he manages to verbalize his thought
Ask to get information needed and to be sure you understand the other party.
Take differences as a possibility to learn more about the other party. Focus on differences as soon as possible, so that they do not interfere in further negotiation.